Lord Skanda-Murugan
 

Kabilar Malai Murugan Temple

KUfg; ngUkhdpd; tpujq;fSk;> tpohf;fSk;

rhe;jp ehTf;furd;

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KUf topghL

rka tho;f;ifapy; Mo;e;j gw;Wf; nfhz;lth;fs; vq;Fk; KUfd; vjpYk; KUfd; vd;w ek;gpf;ifAld; KUf topghl;by; <LgLth;. Njth; FyKk;> kdpj FyKk; ca;tila KUfg; ngUkhdpd; Njhw;wKk;> tpOkpa Jizahf mike;jJ. gz;ila jkpo; ,yf;fpaq;fs; KUfidf; FwpQ;rpj; jpizf;Fhpa nja;tkhfg; Nghw;wpdhYk; mg; ngUkhd; cyfk; KotJk; epuk;gpapUf;fpwhd;. MtdJ jpUtUs; vq;fZk; gutp mUs; ghypf;fpd;wJ. ,aw;ifaoFld; $ba ,lq;fspy; mtdJ Nfhapy;fs; vOe;Js;sd. fhL> kiy> Nrhiy> muq;fk; vq;fZk; mtDf;Ff; Nfhapy;fs; cz;L. mJNt KUfdJ nja;tPfg; ngUikf;Fr; rhd;W. kf;fSf;F capj;Jizahf tpsq;Fk; flTs; KUfg;ngUkhd;>mk;ik mg;gNdhL vOe;jUsp mUs; ghypf;Fk; mw;Gjj; nja;tk;. Mbahh;fspilNa ey;YwT Vw;gLj;Jk;> xw;Wikj; nja;tk; ts;sp nja;tahid rNkjuha; tpsq;Fk; moFj; nja;tk;. ,j;jifa rpwg;gpdhy; ef;fPuh; jpUKUfhw;Wg;gilapy; mbahh;fis cs;sd;Gld; Kufidj; jhprpj;J tpopgLk; tz;zk; Mw;wg;gLj;Jfpd;whh;. Kj;jkpohy; itjhiuAk; tpo itg;gtdhfpa KUfd; ahTk; epiwT ngw;w G+uzg; nghUs;;.

cgeplj thf;fpak; G+uzj;jpd; rpwg;igf; $Wk; Xk; G+h;zkj G+h;zkpjk; G+H;zhj; G+h;zKjr;aNj vd;w cgepljr; rpe;jidapd; gb G+h;zkhfpa nghUspypUe;J G+H;zk; cjakhfpAs;sJ vd;gJ tpsf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. G+h;zkhfpa rptg;guk;nghUsplkpUe;J G+Uzkhfpa KUfg;ngUkhd; cjkhfpAs;shd; vd;Wk; nfhs;tjpy; jtwpy;iy. Gjpahpy; GjpatdhfTk; Kbtpw;F KbthdtdhfTk; tpsq;Fk; KUfd; epidj;jTld; mbahh;fSf;F mUs;ghypg;gtd;.

mQ;RKfk; Njhd;wpy; MWKfk; Njhd;Wk;
neQ;rkjpy; mQ;rnyd Nty;Njhd;Wk; neQ;rpy;
xUfhy; epidf;fpy; ,UfhYk; Njhd;Wk;
KUfh vd; NwhJthh; Kd;’

Vd;w ghly; KUfdJ jpUtUl; rpwg;igf; $Wk;. KUfDf;Fs;s vz;zw;w jpUehkq;fs; mtdJ nja;tPfg; ngUikfis vkf;F czh;j;Jfpd;wd. mtDf;Fhpa jpUehkq;fspy; nrt;Nts; vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. KufdJ jpUTUtpidr; nre;epwkhfNt fz;ldh;. fhiyg;nghOjpw; fz;zpw;F ,dpajha;f; fPo;j; jpirapw; Nwhd;Wk; ,sQhapW nrt;nthspg; gpok;gha;j; Njhd;Wk; jd;ikiaf; fz;L kfpo;e;j khjh; mt;thW kfpo;r;rpiaj; jUk; KUfg;ngUkhidAk; nrt;Nts; Nrva; vd mioj;jdh;. fe;jGuhzj;jpy; fr;rpag;gh; KufdJ Njhw;wj;jpidf; gw;wpf; Fwpg;gpLkplj;J.

mUtKk; cUTk; Mfp mehjpaha;g; gytha; xd;wha;g;
gpukkha; epd;w Nrhjpg;gpok;gNjhh; Nkdp Mff;
FUiz$h; Kfq;fs; MWk; fuq;fs; gd;dpuz;Lk; nfhz;Nl
XU jpUKUfd; te;jhq;F cjpj;jdd; cyfk; ca;a

vd;w ghly; jUk; fUj;jpd; nghUj;jg;ghl;bidAk; ,q;F cte;J eaf;f Kbfpd;wJ.

KUfdJ topghL epfOk; Myaq;fs; njd;dhl;bYk; <oj;jpYk; ngUkstpy; cs;sd. KufdJ jpUfuj;jpy; tpsq;Fk; QhdNty; KUftopghl;by; rpwg;gplk; ngWfpd;wJ. Nty; vd;gJ KufdJ Qhdrf;jp KUfg; ngUkhdpd; Jizia mtdJ Ntypd; topghl;lhy; mbath;fs; ngWth;.

tPuNty; jhiuNty; tpz;Nzhh; rpiwkPl;l
jPUNty; nrt;Nts; jpUf;ifNty; thhp
Fspj;j Nty; nfhw;wNty; R+h;khh;g;Gk; Fd;Wk;
Jisj;jNty; cz;Nl Jiz

Vd;w ef;fPuhpd; ghly; Ntypd; rpwg;gpidf; $Wk;. Qhdkhfpa mwpTf;F %d;W gz;Gfs; cz;L. mit Mok;> mfyk;> $h;ik vd;gd Ntypd; mbg;gilg;gFjp. Mo;e;Jk; ,ilg;gFjp mfd;Wk;> Edpg;gFjp $h;ikahfTk; ,Uf;Fk;. guk;nghUspd; jj;Jtj;ij kzpthrfh; Ntjq;fs; Iah vd Xq;fp Mo;e;jfd;w Ez;zpaNd vdg; Nghw;Wfpd;whh;. ,t;Ntypd; jj;Jtk; mg;guk;nghUs; jj;Jtj;ij vkf;F czh;j;Jfpd;wJ. KufdJ jpUf;ifNty; topghl;bdhy; Mztj;ijAk;> jPtpidiaAk; mopf;fyhk;. mUzfphpehjh; Nty;tFg;G vd;w jdpg;ghlypdhy; ,e;j Qhdrf;jpiar; rpwg;ghfg; Gfo;e;Js;shh;. KufdJ jpUTUt topghl;Lf;F epfuhf mtdJ jpUf;ifapy; tpsq;Fk; QhdNtypid itj;J topgLk; kuG gz;ilf;fhyk; Kjy; ,Ue;J tUfpd;wJ. rpyg;gjpfhuj;jpy; tUk; Ntw;Nfhl;lk; vd;w Fwpg;G Ntiy KUfdhf topgLk; kuigf; $Wfpd;wJ.

tho;f;ifAk;> tpujq;fSk; tpohf;fSk;

cyfpy; fy;Njhd;wp kz; Njhd;whf; fhyj;Nj Kd;Njhd;wp %j;jFb irtj; jkpo;f; Fb> ehfhPfj;jpYk;> gz;ghl;bYk; xOf;f newpapYk; jiy rpwe;jth;fshf irtj; jkpo; kf;fs; tho;e;jdh;. Guhjd fhyk; njhl;Nl flTs; topghLk;> rka rlq;FfSk;> tpujq;fSk; mth;fs; tho;tpaNyhL gpd;dpg; gpize;J xd;wpAs;sd.

kdpjdhfg; gpwe;jhy; kl;Lk; NghjhJ> gz;ghl;NlhL Mrhu mDl;\hdq;fNshL tho Ntz;Lk;. mjw;F toptFg;gJ tpujq;fSk;> tpohf;fSk; MFk;.af;Qk;> jg];>Kjypa fh;kq;fis nra;a Kbahjth;fSf;nfd;Nw tpohf;fSk;> tpujq;fSk; Vw;gl;ld. jPa rf;jpfs;> jPa Fzq;fs; Xop glTk;> mikjp> kdj;Jha;ik> nja;t topghL> kd xUik> kf;fs; kj;jpapy; xw;Wik Vw;glNt tpujq;fs;> tpohf;fs;> gz;biffs; iff; nfhs;sg;gl;ld. kuzk; vd;why; vd;d? = gftj; tp]; kuzNkt kuzk; mjhtJ gfthid kwg;gNj kuzk; MfNt jhd; Ve;NeuKk; gfthid epidf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;F tpujq;fSk;> tpohf;fSk; toptFf;fpd;wd.

kdk;> nkhop> nka; %d;iwAk; fl;Lg;gLj;jp xUq;F Nrur; nra;J ,iw rpe;jidia tsh;j;J ,iwtd; mUNf vk;ik mioj;Jr; nry;git tpujq;fs; jkJ tho;f;ifapy; tpujq;fSk;> gz;biffSk; Kf;fpa gq;F tfpf;fpd;wd. Mdhy; mt;tpujq;fs; gz;biffs; gw;wp Kiwahfj; njhpe;J nfhz;lth;fs; kpfr; rpyNu. ,it gw;wpa tpguq;fis mwpa Mh;tkpUe;Jk;; vq;qdk;> vq;fpUe;J mwpayhk; vdj; njhpahJ. jtpg;Nghh; gyh;> tpuj fijfs; mE\;lhd Kiwfs; Nehf;fq;fs; Kjypad tpguq;fisf; $Wk; Ehy;fs; ,d;W fpilg;gJ mhpJ.

tpQ;Qhd Kiwg;gb ghh;j;jhYk; FLk;g eyk;> cly; eyk;> guk;giu tpRthrk;> jd;dk;gpf;if> JzpT> gzpT gf;jp Mfpatw;iw mjpfkhf;fp tho;tpy; xOf;fj;ijAk; Neh;ikiaAk;> ,it mjpfkhf;Ffpd;wd.

xt;nthU tpujKk;> xt;nthU Nfhzj;jpy; MAs; tpUj;jpiaAk;> kdpj cly; eyj;ijAk; Mjhukhff; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wd.

vy;NyhuhYk; vy;yh tpujq;fisAk; Vw;Wf; nfhs;s ,ayhtpbDk;> Vw;Wf; nfhz;L gpd;gw;Wk; tpujq;fs; vg;gbr; nrayhw;w Ntz;Lk;. mjdhy; Vw;gLk; nja;t ed;ikfs; vd;d mjdhy; Vw;gLk; tpQ;Qhd ed;ikfs; vd;gd vd;gijnay;yhk; ehk; mtrpak; njhpe;J itj;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk; khUff;FUl;lhk; Nghf;fpy; gpd;gw;wf; $lhJ. ,d;iwa ,isa r%jhak; Nfl;Fk; Nfs;tpfSf;F ehk; tpil gfuf; $bath;fshf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.

tpujq;fis Nkw;nfhs;tjhy; nja;t ek;gpf;if mjpfkhfpwJ. XOf;fKk; fl;Lg;ghLfSk; Vw;gLfpd;wd. cly; MNuhf;fpak; ngWfpwJ. MAs; mjpfkhfpwJ gpur;rpidfs; Fiwfpd;wd. jdpkdpjd; ed;ik ngWtjdhy; mtd; FLk;gk; ed;ik ngWfpwJ. ,uf;f rpe;jid> jUkk; nra;Ak; Fzk; Mfpait tsUfpd;wd. tpQ;Qhd Kiwg;gbNah> mQ;Qhd Kiwg;gbNah ,Us;Qhd Kiwg;gbNah Muha;e;jhYk; tpujq;fs; ekf;F xU NghJk; tpNuhjkhd epiyikfisj; jutpy;iy vd;gJ kl;Lk; cWjp

tpujnkd;why; rq;fy;g;gj;JlDk;> cgthr epakq;fSlDk; $lr; nra;Ak; rj;fh;kh vd;W nghUs; cgeadj;jpy; gpuk;krhhpf;F NtjNk tpujj;ijf; $WfpwJ. ]khth;j;j fhyj;jpy; Ntjtpujk; tpjpf;fg;gl;bUf;fpwJ. aQ;Qj;jpy; <Lgl;ltUf;F rpy tpujKz;L. ,it Ntj tpujkhFk;. ehk; Mz;L NJhWk; mD\;bg;gJ GuhztpujkhFk;. gz;bif vd;;why; mjpf epakkpd;wp cw;rtkhfr; nra;tjhk;. Tpehaf rJh;j;jp KUfdpd; ijg;G+rj; jpUtpoh cw;rtkhFk;. rq;fuhe;jp (nghq;fy;) Nghd;w rpy gz;biffspy; R+Hpa G+ir> jh;g;gzk;> Kjypa rpy tpuj epakq;fs; cz;L.

mtrpak; nra;Nj MfNtz;Lk;nkd;gJ epj;atpujkhk;. XU gyid ehbr; nra;tJ fhk;a tpujkhFk;. rpy epj;aKk; > fhkpaKkhFk;. fhk;ankd;why; ,j;jid Kiw tplhky; nra;J cj;jpahadKk; nra;a Ntz;Lk;.

tpujq;fSs; rpy epj;jpa tpujq;fs; vd;Wk; NtW rpy fhkpa tpujq;fs; vd;Wk; nrhy;yg;gLk;. rpy Njitfis Kd;dpl;L ,iwtdplk; ekJ Ntz;Ljy;fis Kd;itj;Jf; Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;Jf;F mE\;bj;J mjd; gpd; cj;jpahgdk; nra;ag;gLtit fhkpa tpujq;fs; mt;thW my;yhky; vJtpj gyd;fisAk; vjph;ghuhky; mkhthir > G+uiz (gWtk;) Kjypa tpujq;fisj; njhlh;e;J mD\;bj;jy; epj;jpa tpujq;fshFk;.

jha; je;ijah; ,we;j jpjpfshf Mz;LNjhWk; tUk; mkhthir tpujk; Gul;lhjp khjj;jpy; tUk; khia rpuhh;j;j jpdtpujk;> rpj;jpiu> Ig;grp khjg; gpwg;Gfshd tp\g Gz;zpa fhy tpujq;fs; Mb> ij khjg; gpwg;Gf;fshd mad Gz;zpa fhy tpujq;fs; vd;gd gpjpuh; tpujq;fSs; rpwe;jit.,it fhy vy;iy fUjhky; mwpT cs;s tiu filg;gpbf;f Ntz;ba tpujq;fshFk;.

(c.it. M. rh;kh <oehL)

nghJkf;fs; nghpJk; fhkpa tpujq;fis tpUk;gp mD\;bf;fpd;wdnudpDk; chpa Kiwg;gb rhpahd tpjp Kiwfis mwpe;J iff;nfhs;Nthh; kpfr; rpyNu.

,d;d> ,d;d tpujq;fs; ,d;d ,d;d Nehf;fj;Jf;fhf mE\;bf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; ,j;jid tUlq;fs; iff; nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,t;thW iff;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;nwy;yhk; tpjpKiwfs; cz;L. mtw;iw mwpe;J Kiwahff; iff;nfhs;tJ mtrpakhFk;.

xU tpujj;ij Muk;gpf;Fk; Kd; ,d;d Nehf;fj;Jf;fhf ,d;dKiwg;gb ,t;tsT fhyk;;;;; mD\;bf;fg; Nghfpd;Nwd; vd;W cWjpahfj; jPH;khdk; nra;J (rq;fy;gk; nra;J) Myak; nrd;W rq;fy;g;gG+h;tkhf mh;r;rpid topghLfs; nra;J Muk;gpf;f Ntz;Lk;. Fwpg;gpl;l fhy vy;iy tiu khw;wkpd;wp mt;tpujj;ij xOq;fhff;iff; nfhs;sNtz;Lk;.

chpa fhyk; Kbe;jJk; tpuj cj;jpahgdk; nra;J tpujj;ij epWj;j Ntz;Lk;. tpujj;Jf;Fhpa %h;j;jpapd; tbtj;ijg; nghd; gpujp ikahfr; nra;J tPl;bNy itj;J Kiwg;gb Fk;gq;fs; ];jhgpj;J rq;fy;g G+H;tkhfg; Gz;zpahfthrdk; Kjypa G+h;thq;f fphpiafSld; Muk;gpj;J rk];Njhgrhu G+irfisAk; nra;JKbj;J md;W KOtJk; cgthrkhapUj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. kWehs; mjpfhiyapy; ePuhb epj;jpa fh;khE\;lhdq;fs; nra;J kWgbAk; mtw;Wf;Fg; G+irfs; elj;jpa gpd; Fk;gg; nghUl;fs; nghd; gpujpikAk; kw;Wk; jhdg; nghUl;fs; ahTk; Nrh;j;J 0Ntl;b> rhy;it> mhprp> fha;fwp> jhk;G+yj\pizfs; G+irfisr; nra;tpj;j FUTf;F toq;fp Kiwg;gb ehd; iff;nfhz;l ,e;j tpujj;ij ,d;W cj;jpahgdk; nra;J Kbf;fpd;Nwd;. rh];jpuq;fspy; nrhy;yg;gl;l gb ,t;tpujj;jpw;Fhpa gyd;fisj; je;jUs Ntz;Lk; vd;W gpuhh;j;jid nra;a Ntz;Lk; jk;gjpG+ir> Rkq;fyp G+ir Kjypad Fwpj;J tpujj;Jf;F nrhy;yg;gl;bUe;jhy; mtw;iwAk; nra;J Kbe;jgpd; khN`];tu G+ir nra;J tplLg; ghuiz gz;z Ntz;Lk; ghuiz fhiy vl;liu kzpf;F Kd;nra;J Kbf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ tpjp.

,q;F Fwpg;gpl;l tpjj;jpy; tPl;bNy G+irfisr; nra;tJk; nghd; gpujpikfisr; nra;J jhdk; nfhLg;gJk; ahtUf;Fk; vspjhdjd;W ,jdhy; cj;jpahadNk nra;ahJ tpLtJk; Kiwad;W vdNt chpa fhyj;jpy; Myak; nrd;W tpuj cj;jpahgdk; nra;ag; Nghfpd;Nwd; vd;W FUKfkhfr; rq;fy;gk; nra;J ,ad;w tifapy; tpNr\ mgpN\fk; G+ir mh;r;rid topghLfisr; nra;J FUTf;F jhk;G+y jl;rizfSk;> jhdq;fSk; ,ad;wtiuAk; toq;fp tpujj;ij kdepiwNthL Kbj;J ,iwtdplk; rkh;g;gpf;fyhk;.

tpujq;fs; kf;fspd; kd typik mjpfkhfTk;> ek;gpf;iffspd; mbg;gilapy;> mth;fsJ tho;tpy; tsKk;> eyKk;> kpFtjw;F gad;gLfpd;wd.

tpuj mD\;lhdq;fSk;> tpjpKiwfSk;

vy;yh tpujq;fSf;Fk; nghJthd tpjpKiwfs; ahit vd ehk; ghh;g;Nghkhdhy; mjpfhiyapy; JapnyOe;jy;> ePuhbj; Njha;j;Jyh;e;j Milfis mzpjy;> re;jpahte;jdk; Kjypa epj;jpa fh;khE\;lhdq;fis (mEl;lhdk; ghh;j;jy;) Kiwg;gb nra;jy;>Mya topghL nra;jy;> fhiy> khiy tPl;by; Rthkp miwapy; tpsf;Nfw;wp topgl;L ,ad;wtiu jpUKiwg;ghly;fs; kw;Wk; Njhj;jpug;ghly;fisg; ghLjy;> tpG+jp> cUj;jpuhf;fk; Kjypa rka rpd;dq;fis mzpe;jpUj;jy;> fhiy cztpid ePf;fp kjpak; xU Ntis kl;Lk; ,d;dKk;> ,utpy; ghy; goKk;> my;yJ gyfhuk; cz;zy; vd;gd vy;yhtpujq;fSf;FNk Kf;fpakhf Ntz;lg;gLk; fl;Lg;ghLfshFk;. tpujk; ,Uf;Fk; ngz;fs;> mjpfhiy R+hpa cjaj;jpw;F Kd;dhy; Fspj;Jr; Rj;jkhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. tPL thry;fisf; fOtp Rj;jg;gL;j;j Ntz;Lk;. ,t;tpjk; tpuNjhj;jpahgdk; nra;gth;fSf;fhfTk;> rhjhuzkhf ghuiz rkaj;jpy; Mya jhprdk; nra;tjw;fhf tUgth;fSf;fhfTk;> cgthrtpujq;fSf;F kWehs; fhiyapy; Myaq;fspy; epfOk; tpN\\ ghuizg; G+iria mjpfhiyapNyNa epiwNtw;wp tpujk; mE\;bg;Nghh; vl;liu kzpf;F Kd; jkJ ghuizia Kbj;Jf; nfhs;Sk; tifapy; Mya eph;thfpfSk;> FUkhUk; Kd;tu Ntz;Lk;.

chpa Neuj;jpy; ghuiz gz;Ztjw;Fj; jilfs; Vw;gl;lhy; ghuizf;fhf rikj;j czitr; rhkpg;glj;jpw;F Kd;gilj;J mjid ,e;j chpa Neuj;jpy; Kfh;e;J tpLjy; NghJkhdJ. gpd;dh; ,ad;w nghOjpy; rhg;gplyhk;.

rikay; jahhpg;gjpYk; jhkjk; Vw;gbd; rhkpglj;jpw;F Kd; xU rpW ghj;jpuj;jpy; ePnuLj;J itj;J mjpy; Jsrpia ,uz;L mbapiyfSld; $ba fjpuhf vLj;J me;j ePiu chpa fhyj;jpy; mUe;jp ghuizia epiwT nra;ayhk;. gpd;dh; trjpahd NghJ rhg;gplyhk;.

XU tpujj;jpd; Kbtpy; mjhtJ ghuiz ehspy; ,d;ndhU tpujk; te;jhy; ,e;j KiwiaNa filg;gpbf;f Ntz;Lnkd;W rh];jpuq;fs; $Wfpd;wd. ,uz;lhtJ tpujKk; > cgthrkhf ,Ue;jhy; KjyhtJ tpuj;jpd; ghuiziaj; Jsrp> jPH;j;jk; mUe;jp epiwNtw;wp tpl;L ,uz;lhtJ tpujj;ij Kiwg;gb cgthrkhf mDl;bj;J mjw;F kWehs; ghuiz nra;a Ntz;Lk;.

ngUk;ghYk; Nfjhunfshp Nehd;gpd; kWehs; fe;jr\;b tpujhuk;gk; my;yJ fe;jr\;b tpuj Kbtpy; mjhtJ ghuizad;W Nrhkthu tpujk; tUtJz;L> ,r; re;jh;g;gj;jpy; Kjypy; ehk; ghh;j;jthW jhd; tpjpKiwiaf; iff; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

rpyh; cjaj;jpw;F Kd; tpujj;jpw;Fhpa ghuizia Kbj;JtpLtJz;L. Mdhy; R+hpa cjaj;jpw;F Kd; ghuiz nra;jy; tpjpad;W.

tpuj epakdq;fis Muk;gj;jpNyNa msTld; iff;nfhs;tJ ed;W fLikahd Kiwapy; Muk;gpj;J gpd;dh; miuFiwahf epWj;JtJ $lhJ. tpujj;ij fpukg;gb mDrhpf;f Kbahjth;fs; jk;khypad;wsT mDrhpg;gNj jFjp jk;ksTf;F kPwp cliy tUj;j Nehpbd; tpujj;jpy; ntWg;G Njhd;Wk; ,jdhy; tpuj gyd; ,y;yhky; Ngha;tpLk; )
jpUkapiy nr. nt. [k;Gypq;fgps;is)

,t;tpujq;fis mD\;bf;fj; jFjpahdth;fs; ahh; jFjpaw;Nwhh; ahh;? vd;nwhU Nfs;tp vOfpwJ. Rj;j NghrdKilNahuhAk; jPl;ir ngw;wth;fshfTk;> Mrhu rPyh;fshfTk; ,Ug;gth;fNs tpujq;fisf; iff;nfhs;sj; jFjp cilNahh; vd;W tpuj Ehy;fs; vLj;Jiuf;fpd;wd.

Nehahsh;fSk;> MnrsfhpaKilNahUk; ghyfh;fSk;> khjtpyf;fhd ngz;fSk; tpujk; mDl;bf;Fk; jfik ,y;yhjth;fs; ,th;fs; tpujk; iff;nfhs;s Ntz;Lkhapd; jkf;fhf NtW xUtiu thpj;Jf; nfhs;sNtz;Lk;. ngz;fs; jk; fztiu my;yJ kfid thpj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;. Nehahsh; gps;isfis my;yJ FUkhiuf; nfhz;L tpujj;ij Nehw;wyhk;. ghyfh;fSf;fhfg; ngw;Nwhh; Nehw;wyhk;. Mrhu kpy;yhNjhh; my;yJ mnrsfhpaKilNahUk; FUkhiu thpj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;.

rikay; ghj;jpuq;fs; tpujj;jpw;F vdj; jdpahfg; Gjpjhff; fOtp Rj;jkhf Vw;fdNt rikj;jjhfNth> mirt czTfisr; rikj;j ghj;jpuq;fshfNth ,Uf;ff; $lhJ. Kjy; ehs; rikj;j czTfs; xJf;fp itf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

tpujk; ,Ug;gth;fs; gpwh; kPJ Nfhgg;gLjy;> gpwiug; gw;wp jtwhfg; NgRjy;> gpwh; kdk; Gz;gLk;gb Nfyp nra;jy;> gpwhplk; NgrhjpUj;jy;> mjpfkhfg; NgRjy; Mfpa vJTNk nra;af; $lhJ.

tpujk; vd;w ngaiu itj;Jf; nfhz;L mbf;fb ePuhfhuk; rhg;gplf;$lhJ. Xa;T Njit vd;W gfypy; gLj;Jj; Jhq;ff;$lhJ. ehk; tpopj;;jpUe;J ,iwtopghl;by; ekJ vz;zq;fis rpe;jidiar; nrYj;j Ntz;Lk;.

tpujk; ,Ug;Nghh; jhk;gj;jpa cwtpy; <LgLjy;> jtwhd czh;r;rpfis cUthf;Fk; epfo;r;rpfis ghh;j;jy;> Nfl;ly; $lhJ tpujj;jpd; NghJ mirt czTfis rhg;gpLjy;> gpwUf;F rikj;Jf; nfhLg;gJ $l jtwhFk;. ntw;wpiy ghf;F NghLjy;> Gifg;gpbj;jy;> kJ mUe;Jjy;> R+jhLjy; MfpaitAk; $lhJ.

tpuj epge;jidfis KOkdNjhL Vw;Wf; nfhs;gth;fshf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. tpujq;fSf;F jFe;jgb xUNtis> ,uz;L Ntis %d;W NtisAk; cgthrk; ,Uj;jy; Mfpa vjw;Fk; jahuhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.

tpuj G+irapd; NghJ xt;nthU KiwAk; tpehafUf;F G+ir nra;j gpwNf tpujj;jpw;fhd nja;tq;fSf;F G+ir nra;a Ntz;Lk;.

Fwpg;gpl;l tpujq;fspy; Fwpg;gpl;l Kiwg;gbNa g+ir tpjpfisAk;> mDl;lhd KiwfisAk; filg;gpbf;f Ntz;Lk;. tpjpapy; Fwpg;gpl;l kyh;fNs mj;nja;tq;fSf;F gad;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. khw;W kyh;fs; gad;gLj;jf; $lhJ. ,J tpujq;fSf;F gq;fk; Vw;gLj;Jk; vd;gJ Kd;Ndhh; ek;gpf;if

tpujq;fs; ,Ug;gth;fs; Mzhf ,Ue;jhy; Kjypy; FLk;gj;jhhpd; mDkjp ngw;Nw tpujk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. fd;dpg; ngz;fshapd; ngw;Nwhhpd; mDkjpAlDk;> kzkhd ngz;fs; fztdpd; jhahuhd khkpahhpd; mDkjp ngw;w gpd;Dk; tpujk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. gpwUf;F cld;ghL ,y;yhj R+o;epiyapy; ,Uf;Fk; tpujq;fs; KOg;gyidj; juh.

tpuj rk;`pij vd;Dk; Ehy; Nehahspfs; kpfTk; tajhdth;fs;> Foe;ijfs; ,g;gb cs;sth;fs; tpujk; G+irfspy; fye;J nfhz;lhy; NghJk; vd;fpwJ. ngz;fs; tPl;Lf;F tpyf;fhfp vO jpdq;fs; Md gpwNf tpujk; Nkw;nfhs;syhk;.

NkYk; Foe;ij gpwe;J ehw;gj;J vl;L jpdq;fSf;Fk; gpwNf Foe;ij ngw;w ngz;fs; tpujk; mD\;bf;fyhk;.FLk;g cWg;gpdh; vtNuDk; ,we;jhy; mth;fs; ,we;J %d;W khjq;fSf;Fg; gpwNf FLk;gj;jpYs;s kw;w cWg;gpdh;fs; tpujq;fisf; filg;gpbf;f Ntz;Lk;.

,it tpuj mD\;lhdq;fSf;fhd nghJ tpjpfshFk;. ,tw;NwhL rk;gpujha G+h;tkhf jkJ gpuNjrq;fspy; epfOk; eilKiwfisAk;> FU%ykhf cgNjrpf;fg;gl;ltw;iwAk; Nrh;j;J KOkdjhd tpujq;fs; ek;gpf;ifNahL mDrhpg;gNj KiwahFk;.

tpujk; ,Ug;gth;fs; xt;nthUtUk; nra;a Ntz;batw;iw kdj;jpy; cWjpahff; nfhs;StijNa tpujk; vd;ghh;fs;. ,t;tpjk; tpujk; mD\;bf;fg;gLfpd;wNghJ vijr; nra;a Ntz;Lk;. vijr; nra;af;$lhJ vd;gjid rh];jpuq;fs; njspT glf;$Wfpd;wd. ,tw;iw ehk; Kiwg;gb iff;nfhz;lhy; tpujmDl;lhd gaidg; ngw;wf;nfhs;syhk;.

KUfg; ngUkhDf;Fhpa tpujq;fSk;> tpohf;fSk;

KUfg; ngUkhid Muhjpf;Fk; %d;W Kj;jhd tpujq;fs; tpuj Ehy;fspNy nrhy;yg;gl;bUf;fpd;wd. thu tpujk; xd;Wk;> (Rf;fputhuk; my;yJ nts;spf;fpoik tpujk; ) jpjp tpujk; xd;Wk; (fe;jr\;b tpujk;)> (el;rj;jpu tpujk; - fhh;j;jpif tpujk; )vd mit mikfpd;wd.
KUfg;ngUkhid tzq;fp mUs; ngWtjw;Fhpa tpujq;fis rpwg;ghf xt;nthd;whf vLj;J Muha;Nthk;.caph;fSf;F Ntz;LtJ %d;W Rfk;. ,fk;> guk;> tPLNgW ,e;j %d;W ,lq;fspYk; fhj;jUSk; nja;tk; KUfd; mjdhy; mg;ngUkhd; %d;W cfuq;fSld; $ba KUF vd;w nrhy;iy cila jdpg;ngUe; nja;tkhf tpsq;Ffpd;whd;.

,e;j %d;W eyd;fis toq;f ty;y nja;tk; KUfNts;. ghy; gharj;ij xU fuz;biaf; nfhz;L jhNd gilf;fpd;Nwhk;. mJ Nghy; ,f eyid ts;sp Njtpiaf; nfhz;Lk;> gueyid nja;tahid mk;ikiaf; nfhz;Lk;> Kf;jp eyid NtyhAjj;ijf; nfhz;Lk; ekf;F mUs; Ghpfpd;whd; KUfd;. vdNt KUfg; ngUkhid gad;fUjhJ nka;ad;Gld; topgLNthh; ,fk;> guk;> tPL vd;w Kk;ik eyd;fisAk; ngw;W nrk;ikAWthh;fs;. ghtk; epiwe;j fiyapy; fz;fz;l nja;tkhff; fypAftujdhf tpsq;Fgth; fe;jNts;> KUfid Qhdpfs; jkJ Qhd topahy; fz;lhh;fs;. moF ciwAk; Fd;Wfspnyy;yhk; Nfhyf;Fkud; nfhYtPw;wpUg;gjhff; nfhz;L Mq;fhq;F mtDf;F tpohntLj;J topgLfpd;Nwhk;.

moFf; flTshf ciwAk;> KUfid jkpo;f; flTshf ehk; nfhz;Nlhk;> Kj;jkpohy; itjhiuAk;> thoitg;ghd; KUfd; vd;gh; mUzfphpahh;. mj;jifa ngUikAk;> mUSk; epiwe;j KUfDf;Fhpa tpujq;fs; tpohf;fs; gw;wpr; rpwg;ghf Nehf;FNthk;.

Rf;fputhu tpujk;

Rg;gpukzpaf; flTis Ntz;b xt;nthU nts;spf;fpoikAk; iff; nfhs;sg;gLk; ,e;j tpujk; Ig;grp khj Kjy; nts;;;;;spf;fpoikapy; Muk;gpf;fg;gLk;.

cgthrkpUj;jy; cj;jkk;. mJ ,ayhjth;fs; ghy; gokhtJ gyfhukhtJ ,uT xU Neuk; nfhs;syhk;. mJTk; Kbahtjh;fs; gfy; xU nghOJ Nghrdk; nra;f. %d;W tUl fhyk; mE\;bj;j gpd; tpuj cj;ahgdk; nra;ayhk;.

fhh;j;jpif tpujk;

fhh;j;jpif khjf; fhh;j;jpif el;rj;jpuk; Kjyhf (jpUf;fhh;j;jpif) khje;NjhWk; fhh;j;jpif el;rj;jpuj;jpy; KUfg; ngUkhidf; Fwpj;Jf; iff;nfhs;sg;gLk; tpujk; ,J. cgthrk;> cj;jkk;> ,ayhNjhh; ,utpy; ghy;> gok;> gyfhuk; cz;zyhk;.mJTkpayhNjhh; gfnyhUnghOJ Nghrdk; nra;f> gd;dpuz;L tUlq;fs; ,t;tpujkE\;bj;j gpd; cj;ahgdk; nra;ayhk;. jpUf;fhh;j;jpif tpujj;Jf;F ,];jkd tpahgfk; Kf;fpak;. mjhtJ khiy Ie;J kzpf;F Nky; fhh;j;jpif el;rj;jpuk; ,Uf;Fk; ehNs tpuj ehshFk;.

jpUf;fhh;j;jpifj; jPgk; vd;W ,j;jpdj;jpy; jPgq;fis Vw;wpitj;J Nrhjptbtpy; ,iwtid topgLth;. rptuhj;jphp ehspy; gpuktp\;Zf;fSf;Fj; jkJ Nrhjptbit ,iwtd; fhl;ba nghOJ mt;tbitj; jkf;F vd;Wk; fhl;baUs Ntz;Lnkd mth;fs; Ntz;bdh;. mjw;F ,iwtd; jpUf;fhh;j;jpif ehspy; kPz;Lk; ,t;tuit fhl;LNthk; vd;whh;.mjid epidT $h;e;Nj fhh;j;jpifj; jPgehs; nfhz;lhlg;gLfpd;wJ.

jpUtz;zhkiyj; jyj;jpNy kiyAr;rpapNy ngUe;jPgk; Vw;wg;gLfpd;wJ. gy Ch;fspYKs;s gy;yhapuf;fzf;fhd mbath;fs; ,iwtdJ Nrhjp tbitj; jhprpg;ghh;fs; Fd;wpd; Nkypl;l jPgk; vd;gJk; kiy tpsf;F Mfpa kuGr; nrhw;nwhlh;fs; ePz;l fhyk; ,t;tof;F ,Ue;jijf; fhl;Lfpd;wd.

"ikk;kpir apd;wp kiytpsf;Fg; NghNyhq;fp
nrk;ikap dpd;wpyq;Fe; jPgpif - njk;KidAs;"

vd;W njhy;fhg;gpak; Gwj;jpiz 85 ,y; tUtJk;.

"Kleilg; gwitA kha tpyq;F
Kbkyh; Kbf;fhlitKiw Nghfh’’

vd;W rq;f Gyth; ngha;ifahh; $WtJk;

"thdk; Ch;e;j tsq;nfhsp kz;byk;
neUg;ngdr;rpte;j cUg;G mtph; mk;fl;L’’

vd;Dk; xsitahh; $w;Wk; (mfehEhW) k; $Wfpd;wd.

jpUf;fhh;j;jpif jpdj;jpy; Myaq;fs; NjhWk; nrhf;fg;ghid nfhOj;jp kfpo;th;. nrhf;fg;ghid gw;wp irtrka Gz;zpafhyk; vd;w jkJ Ehypy; j. Rg;gpukzpah; mth;fs; $Wtijg; ghh;g;Nghk;.

Rl;lg;gid vd;Dk; nrhw;nwhlh; jphpe;J nrhf;fg;ghid vd toq;FfpwJ. Rl;fk; vd;gJ tul;rp> cyh;e;j njd;id> gid> fKF> thio ,tw;wpd; jz;bidj; jPgjz;lkhff; Nfhapy; re;epjhdj;jpNy el;L cyh;e;j gidNahiy Kjypatw;why; tpkhdk; Nghy caukhf %bf;fl;ba nrhf;fg;ghidapy; mf;fpdp %l;b mJ Rthypj; njhpAk; NghJ Nrhjp nrh&gkhfTk;> jpUtz;zhkiyj; jPgkhfTk; ghtpj;J gf;jh; topgLth;.,e;jr; nrhf;fg;ghidapd; eLNt thiof; Fw;wpnahd;iw el;L mUfpy; khtpsf;Fj; jPgk; xd;iwAk; itj;J nrhf;fg;ghid vhpj;J Kbe;j gpd; mjid vLj;J epNtjpg;gh;. KUfd; Myaq;fspy; mbahh;fs; gyUk; khtpsf;F ,l;L topgLth;.

nre;jpid khTld; (fpilf;fhjth;fs; mhprpkhtpy; nra;th;) NjidAk;> ed;F fdpe;j thiog;goj;ijAk;> rf;fiuiaAk; Nrh;j;Jg; gpire;J mk;khtpdhy; xd;W> %d;W>Ie;J VO vd xw;;iwg;gil ,yf;fj;py; mfy; tpsf;F tbtj;jpy; nra;J nea;tpl;Lj; jphpAk; ,l;Lj; jPgkhf Vw;Wth;. ,jidNa khtpsf;F vd;gh;.

jpUf;fhh;j;jpif gw;wpAk>; nrhf;fg;ghid gw;wpAk; khe;jphPf G+rzk;
rpt= f. rhk;grptf;FUf;fs; mth;fs; Nrhjplkyh; gj;jphpifapy; (1978 fhh;j;jpif) vOjpa fUj;J ,J.

,iwtd; jphpGu rk;`huk; nra;j jpdk; fhh;j;jpif jpdkhff; fhh;j;jpif el;rj;jpukhFk;.. ,iwtdpd; Gd;difNa mf;fpdpahfj; Njhd;wpj; jphpGuq;fis vhpj;j ghtidiaf; fhl;lNt jPNghj;rtk; vd;w cw;rtk; elj;jg;gLfpwJ. fUq;fhyp> njd;id> gid> thio Kjypatw;wpnyhU kuj;ijj; jPg];jk;gj;jpd; nghUl;L 9 Kjy; 25 Kok; tiu cauKs;sjhf vLj;Jg; G+kpAs; vl;bnyhUgq;F Gijj;J mijr; Rw;wpg; gid Xiy> njd;id Xiy> fKNfhiy ,tw;wpdhy; $Lfl;bj; njw;F my;yJ fpof;Fg; gf;fkhf thry; tpl;L mjpy; jPgk; itj;Jf; nfhOj;j Ntz;Lk;. ,ij ek;ehl;by; nrhf;fg;ghid vd miof;fpd;wdh;.

jpUf;fhh;j;jpif ehs; FkuhyajPgk; vdg;gLk;. KUfd; Myaq;fspy; Nkw;fz;lthW topghLfs; epfOk; Kjy; ehs; my;yJ kw;wehs; my;yJ mNj jpdj;jpy; ngsh;zkp jpdj;jpy; Vida vy;yh Myaq;fspYk;> tPLfspYk; rh;thua jPgk; vd;w ngahpy; nfhz;lhlg;gLfpd;wJ.

tPLfspy; khf;Nfhyq;fisAk;> tz;zf;Nfhyq;fisAk; ,l;L mtw;wpd; kPJ mfy;tpsf;Ffis Vw;wpitg;gh;. rpWrpW ge;jq;fisj; jahh; nra;J mtw;iwj; Njq;fhnaz;nza; my;yJ ,Yg;ngz;nza; tpl;L Vw;wp tPl;LtstpYk;> tay;> Njhl;lk; Kjypa ,lq;fspYk; ehl;b itj;J vhpa tpLth;. tPl;L thrypy; thiof;Fw;wpia ehl;b mjd; Nky; Njq;fha;g; ghjpia itj;J mjDs; jphpr;rPiy ,l;L vz;nza; tpl;L ePz;lNeuk; vhpar; nra;th;. ekpee;jpabfs;> fypaehadhh;> fzk;Gy;yehadhh; MfpNahh; jpUtpsf;Fj; njhz;bdhy; Kj;jp ngw;Nwhuhth;.

,t;thW Gw,Us;; fise;J xsp Nrh;f;Fk; ,e;jj; jPNghw;rt ehspy; mf ,Us; Nghf;fp Qhd xsp Nrh;g;gJk; epfo Ntz;Lnkdg; gpuhh;j;jpf;f Ntz;Lk;.

"epiyjUk; fhh;j;jpifj; jpdj;J ney;ypapd;
,iynfhL Ffdbf; fpiwj;J NshnuyhQ;’’

vd jpUr; nre;Jhh;g;Guhzk; 11- 36 $Wfpd;wJ.

];fe;j\\;b tpujk;

fypAftujDk;> jkpo;f; flTSkhfpa fe;jf;flTshk; Rg;gpukzpa Rthkpf;Fhpa %d;W tpujq;fspy; kpfr; rpwe;jJ ];fe;j\\;b tpujk;> irtrkapfs;> Kf;fpakhff; fe;jGuhz fyhrhuj;jpy; jpiof;Fk; <oj;Jr; irtj; jkpo; kf;fs; kw;nwy;yh tpujq;fisAk; tpl ,e;j ];fe;j\\;b tpujj;ij kpfTk; GdpjkhfTk; gf;jp G+H;tkhfTk; iff;nfhs;Sfpwhh;fs;.

Ig;grp khjj;Jj; jPghtsp mkhthiriaaLj;j tsh;gpiwg; gpujik Kjy; \\;baPwhfTs;s MW ehl;fs; ];fe;j\;b tpujkhFk;. rfy nry;tq;fisAk;> RfNghfq;fisAk; juty;y ,e;j tpujk; Gj;jpuyhgj;Jf;Fhpa rpwg;ghd tpujkhFk;. rl;bapy; ,Ue;jhy; jhNd mfg;igapy; tUk; vd;gJ xU gonkhop. ,jw;F ntspg;gilahd nrhw;nghUis tpl ];fe;j\\;bapy; tpujkpUe;jhy; mfg;igahfpa fUg;igapy; fU cz;lhFk; vd;w cl;fUj;JKz;L. gfy; gd;dpuz;L ehopiff;Ff; Fiwahky; gQ;rkpj;jpjpAk; mjd; gpd; \\;b tpahgfKk; ,Uf;Fk; ehs; R+ud; NghUf;FhpaJ. gpujikj;jpjpapy; Muk;gkhFk;.

KUfgf;jh;fs; xU fLe;jtkhfNt ,t;tpujj;ijf; fUjp MW ehl;fSk; KOg;gl;bdpahf cgthrjpUj;jy; tof;fk;. Kjy; ehs; mkhthirad;Nw xU Neu czTz;L tpujkhf ,Ue;J kWehisa cgthrj;Jf;Fj; jahh; nra;J nfhs;th; (nghJthfNt cgthrj;Jf;Fj; jahh; nra;J nfhs;th; (nghJthfNt cgthr tpujkE\;bf;Fk; NghJ Kjy; ehSk; kWehSk; xU Neu czNt nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

gpujikapyd;W mjpfhiy ePuhbj; Jha Milazpe;J fh;khE\;lhdq;fs; Kbj;J KUfd; Myak; nrd;W mq;NfNa MW ehl;fSk; md;d Mfhuq;fs; vJTkpd;wp ,iwtopghL> KUfehk;g[id> ehkIgk;.Guhzgldk;> Guhzk; Nfl;ly; vd;wpj;jifa Gdpj fhhpaq;fSld; mq;NfNa jq;fpapUg;gh;. jz;zPH; $l mUe;jhJ Myaj;jpy; toq;fg;gLk; ghdfk; (ghdf;fk;) kl;Lk; mUe;jpapUj;jy; cj;jNkhj;jkkhd tpujkhFk;. ghdfnkd;gJ rh;f;fiu> Njrpf;fha;> ,sePh;> Kjypad fye;J jahhpf;fg;gLk; xU ePuhfhuk; MFk;. gl;bdp fplf;Fk; tapw;wpDs; ntspg;gLk; mjpf rf;jpkpf;f ntg;gk;> tha;T> gpj;jk;> ,tw;iwj; jzpj;J clw;rkepiyiag; NgZtjw;Fk;> grp> jhfk;> ,tw;iw XusT jzpf;fTk; ,J cjTfpwJ.

Myaq;fspy; Muk;gjpdj;jpNyNa jh;g;igazpe;J fhg;Gfl;b> rq;fy;gpj;J MW ehSk; Nehd;gpUj;jy; Kiw> ,Wjp ehspy; fh;g;ig mtpo;j;Jj; jh;g;igAld; Nrh;j;Jj; jhk;G+y j\pizfSld; mh;r;rfhplk; rkh;g;gpg;gh;.

Vohk; ehs; mjpfhiyapy; ePuhb epj;jpa fh;khE\;lhdq;fis epiwNtw;wpg; ghuizg; g+i[ vd;W eilngWk; tpNr\ G+i[iaAk; fz;L topgl;lgpd; khN`];tu G+ir nra;J (mbahh;fSf;F md;dkpl;L ) ghuiz nra;a Ntz;Lk;.

,t;tpjk; fLk; tpujk; mE\;bf;f Kbahjth;fs; Kjy; Ie;J ehl;fSk; ,uT xU nghOJ ghy;gok; my;yJ gyfhuk; cz;L ,Wjp ehs; cgthrk; ,Uf;fyhk;. mJTk; Kbahtjth;fs; Kjy; Ie;J ehl;fSk; gfy; xU nghOJ md;dKk; Mwhk; ehs; ,uT ghyg;gok; my;yJ gyfhuKk; cz;L tpujkpUf;fyhk;.

Mwhk; ehs; \\;bj;jpjpapy;; R+urk;`huk; Kbe;j md;wpuT KOtJk; Japy; ePf;fp tpopj;jpUe;J KUfd; ngUikfisNa NgrpAk;> topgl;bUf;fkhW gok; Ehy;fs; tpjpf;fpd;wd. rptgpuhZf;Fhpa rptuhj;;jphpAk;> k`htp\;Zf;Fhpa itFz;l VfhjrpAk; Nghy KUfg;ngUkhDf;Fhpa ];fe;jr\;bAk; kpftpN\\khd jpdkhjyhy; Japy; ePj;jy; nghUj;jkhdNj. MapDk; midtuhYk; ,J iff;nfhs;sg;gLtjpy;iy. ,ad;wth;fs; iff;nfhs;f.

,t;tpujk; MW tUlq;fs; my;yJ gd;dpuz;L tUlq;fs; njhlh;e;J iff;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk;. cgthrk; my;yJ xNu Neu czT vd;gJ czT epajp MW tUlKk; xNu khjphpahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. Kiwg;gb rq;fy;gG+h;tkhf Muk;gpj;J MwhtJ tUlk; tpuj Kbtpy; tpuNjhj;ahgdk; nra;J G+h;j;jp nra;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

tpuNjhahgdj;jpd; NghJ KUfd; Myak; nrd;W tpuj G+h;j;jp rkaj;jpy; tpujj;Jf;Fhpa gyd;fs; vdf;Fr; rpe;jpf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;fhf ,e;j tpNrr G+i[ia nra;fpd;Nwd; vd;W rq;fy;gpj;J tpN\\ mgpN\fk; G+i[> \z;Kfhh;r;rid my;yJ r`];u ehkhh;r;rid Kjypatw;iwr; nra;tpj;J fhg;G jh;g;ig ,tw;Wld; jhk;G+yk; j\piz> Ntl;b> rhy;it> mhprp> fha;fwp Kjypa jhdq;fisAk; Nrh;j;J mh;r;rfhplk; rkh;g;gpj;J kfpo;r;rpAld; ,e;jj; jhdj;ij toq;Ffpd;Nwd;. rh];jpuq;fspy; nrhy;ypapUg;gJ Nghy ,e;j tpujgyd;fs; vdf;F cz;lhfl;Lk; vd;W gpuhh;j;jpf;f Ntz;Lk;. ];fe;j\\;b tpuj kfpik gw;wpf; fe;jGuhzk; rpwg;ghfg; Gfo;e;J NgRk;> trpl;lkhKdpth; KRFe;jr;rf;fu th;j;jpf;F cgNjrpj;j ngUikiaAilaJ ,J. murh;fs;> Njth;fs;> Kdpth;fs; gyUk; ,e;j tpujk; mD\;bj;J NgW ngw;wdh; ,t;tpujk; njhlh;ghd Guhzf;fijia rpe;jpf;fyhk;.

R+ud;> rpq;fd;> jhufd; Kjypa mRuh;fs; neLq;fhyk; Njth;> kdpjh; Kjypa ahtiuAk; Jd;GWj;jp mopT nra;J te;jdh;. gukrptd; ,jw;nfhU KbT fhZk; Nehf;fpy; jkJ rf;jpiaNa KUfg; ngUkhdhfg; gpwg;gpj;jhh;. me;j KUfg;ngUkhd; ,e;j R+ugJkhjp mRuh;fSld; MW ehl;fs; Nghhpl;L ntd;whh;. ,e;j mUl;ngUq;fUizr; nraiy tpae;J ,g;Nghh; epfo;e;j fhykhfpa Ig;grp khj tsh;gpiw KjyhW ehl;fisAk; tpuj ehl;fshff; nfhz;L KdptUk; NjtUk; Njhw;W te;jdh;. ,JNt ];fe;jr\;b vd;w Nghpy; G+Nyhfkhfj; jUk; mE\;bf;ff; fpilj;jJ.

"Ntw;NghLk; mTzd;jd;id tPl;ba jzpNtw; nrq;if
mw;Gjd; jd;id Nghw;wp mkuUk; Kdpth; ahUk;
nrhw;gL Jiyapd; jpq;fl; Rf;fpy gf;fe; jd;dpy;
Kw;gf thjpahf %tpU itfy; Nehw;whh;’’.

fe;jGuhzk; fe;jtpujg;glyk; 20

,f; fe;jGuhzk; fijiar; rq;fud;gps;is rl;bapNy khtWj;jhh; vd;w nrhw;nwhlh; %yk; eifr;Ritahf toq;Fth;. rq;fud; Gjy;tuhfpa KUfg;ngUkhd; \\;bj;jpjpapNy khkukhf te;j R+uidf; fbe;jhh; vd;gJ ,jd; nghUs;. NtWk; fij nrhy;Yk; Guhzkhff; fe;jGuhzj;ij vz;zyhfhJ. irtrpj;jhe;jg; NgUz;ikfis cUtfg;gLj;jpf; fijtbtpy; Ritglj;jUk; mUikahd Ehy; ,JthFk;.

<oj;jpd; irthyaq;fs; gytw;wpy; ,d;Wk; njhlh;e;J fe;jGuhzgldk; nra;ag;gLfpwJ. Guhzgldk; vd;gJ xUth; Guhzj;ijg; gbf;f ,d;ndhUth; mjd; nghUisj; njspthf vLj;Jiuj;J tpsf;fyhk;. gyh; $bapUe;J ,jidr; nrtpkLg;gh;. KOg; GuhzKk; gbf;f trjpapy;yhj ,lq;fspy; Aj;jfhz;lj;jpy; R+ugd;kd; tijg;glyk; kl;LkhtJ ];fe;j\\;b MWehl;fspYk; gbg;;gJ tof;fk;. Guhzglyj;jpd; %yk; xNu rkaj;jpy; gyh; - fy;tpawpthw;wy; Fiwe;jth;fs; $l Guhzf; fijfisAk; mtw;wpd; thapyhfr; rkag; NgUz;ikfs; gytw;iwAk; mwpe;J nfhs;s KbfpwJ.

MWehl;NghUk; MWgiffis nty;Yjiyf; Fwpf;Fk; R+ud;> rpq;fd;> jhufd; %tUk; Mztk;> fd;kk;> khia Mfpa Kk;kyq;fisAk; Njth;fs; Md;khf;fisAk; KUfg;ngUkhd; guk;nghUisAk; czh;j;jp epw;fpd;wdh;. ,t;tpjk; Kg;nghUs; cz;ik tpsf;FjNy ,g;Guhzj;jpd; Nehf;fnkdyhk;. Md;khf;fshfpa ehk; vk;ikj; Jd;gj;Js; Mo;j;jp epw;Fk; fhkk;> FNuhjk;> Nyhgk;> Nkhfk;> kjk;> khw;rhpak; Mfpa MWgiffisAk; Mzthjp Kk;kyq;fisAk;ntd;W Mz;ltidr; nrd;wila Ntz;Lk; vd;w fUj;ijNa ];fe;j\\;b tpujKk; fe;j GuhzKk; typAWj;Jfpd;wd.

ey;iyf; fe;jd; Myaj;jpy; fUtiwapy; Nty; fhl;rpaspf;fpwJ. mjw;Fhpa topghL gf;jp G+H;tkhdJ ghjahj;jpiu nra;J fjph;fhkf;fe;jid topgLk; kuG rpwg;ghdnjhd;whFk;. ,j; jyj;jpy; tpohf;fhyj;jpy; fUtiwapy; ,Uf;Fk; Gdpjg;NgioNa ,yq;fhpj;j ahidkPJ gtdp tUfpd;wJ.ey;iyak; gFjpapy; tpohf;fhyq;fspy; Nty; gtdp tUtJ ,q;F Fwpg;glj;jf;fJ. fjph;fhk cw;rtj;NjhL nfhOk;G khefhpy; cs;s KUfd; Myaq;fspy; Nty; tpoh rpwg;ghf eilngWfpd;wJ. khtpl;lGuk;> ey;Yhh;> kz;Lh;> nry;tr;re;epjp Nghd;w Myaq;fspy; jdpr;rpwg;G tha;e;j topghl;L Kiwfs; cs;sd. fe;jDf;F ke;jpuG+H;tkhd topghLk; ke;jpuq;fspd;wp gf;jp G+H;tkhd topghLk; cs;s. njhz;lkdhW nry;tr;re;jpjp Myaj;jpy; Ntyd; topghL rpwg;ghf cs;sJ. fjph;fhkj;NjhL xj;j G+ir Kiw kl;lf;fsg;G kz;Lh; fe;jRthkp NfhapypYk; nry;tr;re;epjpapYk; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. irtMrhuj;NjhL Myku ,iyapy; ,iwtDf;F czT gilf;Fk; tof;fk; nry;te;re;epjp Nfhapypy; cs;sJ. G+ir epiwNtwpaTld; topgLk; mbath;fSf;F jpUePW> jPh;j;jk;> kUe;J vd %tifg; gpurhjq;fs; G+rfuhy; toq;fg;gLfpd;wd. jPuhj tpidfspdpd;Wk; ca;Tngw mbahh;fs; ,t;thyaq;fspy; gf;jp rpuj;ijAld; topghl;by; <LgLth;. Md;djhdf;fe;jd; vd;w rpwg;Gj; jpUehkk; nry;tr;re;epjp KufDf;F cz;L. Myaq;fspy; topgLk; mbath;fSf;F md;djhdk; toq;fg;gLk; kuG Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. jpUQhdrk;ge;juJ tuyhw;iwf; $Wkplj;J nghpaGuhzk;

kz;zp dpw;gpwe; jhh; ngWk; gad;kfp R+Lk;
mz;z yhub ahh;jik mKJ nra;tpj;jy;’

vdf; Fwpg;gpLk; mbfs; ,q;F rpe;jidf;Fhpad. ,iwtopghl;by; mth; jk; mbahiu ,iwtopghl;by; mth; jk; mbahiug; Nghw;WjYk; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; ngWfpd;wJ. md;djhdj;jpd; topkdpjNeak; Nkd;ikailfpd;wJ. G+Tyfpy; ,g;gbahd topghLfSk; G+irfSk; eilngWtjhy; ,iwtd; ,q;NfNa vOe;jUsp mUs;Ghpfpd;w jd;ik gw;wpf; Njth;fs; $l G+kpapw; gpwf;f tpUk;Gtjhf kzpthrfh; jpUg;gspspnaOr;rpapy; rpwg;ghff; ghbAs;shh;. ey;iyf;fe;jd; topghLfs; Mfk topghl;L kuG jOtpait vd;gJ topghl;L kuG jOtpait vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.

,yq;ifapy; KUf topghL kpfj; njhz;ikahd fhyk; Kjy; epytptUfpwJ. fjph;fhkk;> nry;tr;re;eppjp> kz;Lh;> jpUf;Nfhapy;> Mfpa gpurpj;jpngw;w KUfjyq;fspnyy;yhk; thiaj; Jzpahw; fl;b nksd G+ir nra;Ak; Kiw fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. Mf Kiwf;Fk;> klhya Kiwf;Fk; ,ilg;gl;l G+ir> fphpiafNs ey;Yhhpy; eilngWtd. =y= MWKfehtyh; mth;fs; ,tw;iw Mfk Kiwapy; topg;gLj;j Kide;Jk; ,dpJ eilngwtpy;iy. ,tw;iw Nehf;Fk; nfhOJ

fhLq;fhTq;ftpd; ngWJUj;jpAk;
ahDq; Fd;Dk; NtW gy itg;Gk;
rJf;fKk; re;jpAk; GJf;G+q;flk;G
kd;wKk; nghjpapDk; fe;JilepiyapD’

Ntz;bdh; Ntz;bahq; nfa;jpdh; topgl vd;w jpUKUfhw;Wg;gil mbfs; vkJ epidTf;F tUtd.

khtl;lGuk; fe;jRthkp Nfhtpy; Mfk Kiwrhh; topghL cilaJ. fhq;Nfrd;Jiw> fe;jNuhil fe;jydf;flit> FkhuGuk; Mfpadtlf;fpyq;ifapy; KUfd; ngaNuhL rhh;e;j gok;ngUk; Ch;fshAs;sd.

fpof;fyq;ifapy; kz;Lh; jpUf;Nfhapy;> ntUfy; vd;gd ,j;jifa goiktha;e;j KUfj;jyq;fs;

,yq;ifapy; KUftopghl;by; fjph;fhkj;jyj;jpd;
tpohf;fisr; rpwg;ghf Nehf;fy;

tpNrl cw;rtq;fs;> fjph;fhkj;jyj;jpd; tpNrl tpohf;fSs; kpfg; gpurpj;jpngw;W tpsq;FtJ gjpdhd;F ehl;fs; njhlh;e;J eilngWk;. ePuWg;Gj; jPh;j;Njhw;rtKk; MFk;. mkhthirapw; nfhbNaw;wKk;> Mbj;jpUNthzehsd;;W ngsh;zkpapy; ePuWg;Gk; mjhtJ jPh;j;j cw;rtKk; eilngWk;.

jP kpjpg;G

fjph;fhkj;jyj;jpy; jpUtpohf;fhyq;fspy; eilngWk; jP kpjpg;Gj; jpUtpohTk;> kpfr; rpwg;ghFk;. ,it ,U re;jh;g;gq;fspy; eilngWk;. KUfd; thrypYk;> ts;spak;ik thrypYkhf eilngWk;. 20 mb ePsKk;> 8 mb mfyKk;> 1 mb MoKk;> nfhz;l mdy; epiwe;j jPf;Fopf;Fs; gf;jh;fs; Neh;j;jpfhuzkhfTk;> gf;jp NkyPl;lhYk; eilgapy;th;. rpy re;jh;g;gq;fspy; Fkug;ngUkhDk; gf;jh;fNshL gf;juhf jPkpjpj;jypw; fye;J nfhs;tij gf;jh;fs; mjPjgf;jpahy; czh;th;.

ePuWg;G tpoh (jPh;j;jcw;rtk;)

jPH;j;Njhw;rt ehs; fjpiuf; fe;jDf;F kpf ctg;ghd ehs; gjpdhd;F ehl;fshFk;. fjpiuiyahidj; jphpfuz Rj;jpNahL topgl;l mbahh;fs; mtdJ jpUtUl; rf;jp ngw;Wj; jpisf;Fk; ehs; me;ehs;. khzpf;f ejpapd; ePH;g;gug;gpd; ,U kUq;Fk; gf;j nts;sk; gue;J fhzg;gLk;. fhl;Lj;jbfshYk;> gRe;jiofshTk; gpuj;jpNafkhff; Fbir xd;W mikf;fg;gLk;. ehd;F gf;fq;fSk; milf;fg;ngw;W xU rpW thapYld; fhl;rpaspf;Fk;. Rg%h;j;jj;jpNy KUfg; ngUkhd; Myaj;jpypUe;J ntspg;gLthh;. tpNrlkhfr; nra;ag;gl;LJ; jsg;gj;J Xiyahy; %lg;ngw;w fhtbia ,U fg;Guhisfs; jhq;Fth;. ,itnay;yhk; Jzpg;Nghh;itapd; cs;NsNa eilngWtd. G]ehaf;f epyNk vd;w Rthkpf; fg;GuhisAk;> Vida Myag; G+rfh;fSk;> ahid> jPtl;bfs; ,it midj;Jk; R+otUth;. ts;spak;kd; NfhapypDl; nrd;W Rthkp rpwpJ Neuk; jhpj;jpUg;ghh;. gpd; ts;spak;ikahh; rfpjk; KUfg; ngUkhd; jPH;j;jkhlf; nfhz;L nry;yg;gLthh;.

khzpf;f fq;ifapd; Xl;lj;jpd; vjpuhfr; nrd;W Fbiria mile;J ts;spak;ikahiuAk;> MWKfg; ngUkhidAk; FbirapDs; itj;Jtpl;Lr;> Rthkpf;fg;Guhis nrg;Gf;Flnkhd;iwf; nfhz;L tUthh;. mf;Flj;Jld; khzpf;f ejpapypwq;fp ePh;nkhz;L nrd;W> flTs; jk;gjpapid ePuhl;Lth;. FbirapDs; nkskhfg; G+ir topghL eilngWk;. gpd;dh; fhtb ntspNa nfhz;Ltug;gLk;. Nfhbf;fzf;fhd mbath; khzpf;f fq;ifapNy ePuhbj; jk;tpid jPh;g;gh;. ,jd; gpd; KUfg; ngUkhDk; ts;spak;ikahUk; > ts;spak;kd; Myaj;Js; vLj;Jr; nry;yg;gLth;. mth;fis ePuhl;ba NghJ eide;j Milfisg; gpope;J me; ePiug; gf;jh;fl;Fj; njspg;gh;. jPuhNeha; jPh;j;jUSk; xsljkhf ,J fUjg;gLfpwJ. ,uT 10 kzptiu MWKfg; ngUkhd; ts;spak;ikahh; Myaj;jpw; Rfpj;jpUg;gh;. nja;tPf miog;gpd; gpd;dNu fg;Gwhis jpUk;gTk; Rthkpiar; re;epjpf;F vLj;Jr; nry;th;. Myhj;jpg; ngz;fs; Myhj;jp vLj;Jr; Rthkpia tuNtw;gh;. gpd;dh; gpurhjk; toq;fg;gLk;. jPh;j;jkhb Kbe;jJNk ehl;bd; gy;NtW gFjpfspypUe;Jk; fhy;eilahfTk;> thfdq;fs; %yKk; tUif je;j mbahh;fs; mNuhfuh $wp tpilngw;wJj; jk;%h; nry;th;.

,j;jyj;jpy; eilngWk; NtW tpohf;fs;

rpj;jpiu tUlg;gpwg;gd;W khiy jpUtpoh xd;W eilngWk;. fhh;j;jpifj; jPgehs; Nfhapy;fnsq;Fk; jPghyq;fhuQ; nra;ag;gl;L xspkakhf tpsq;Fk;. md;W khiyapw;jpUtpoh xd;W eilngWk;. ,t;tpohf;fSk; gf;jh;fs; tUif jUth;. ,itNa ,q;F eilngWk; tpNrl jpUtpohf;fs;.

MbNty; tpoh

fjph;fhk ePuWg;G tpohNth nlhl;ba tpohnthd;wpidf; nfhOk;G efhpNy> ehl;Lf; Nfhl;il efuj;jhh; vdg;gLk; nrl;bkhh; Vw;ghL nra;Js;sdh;. fp. gp. 1818 ,y; ele;j Cthf; fyfj;jpd; gpd; fjph;fhk jhprdk; kpff; f\;lkhdjhapw;W.

R+ugd;kidf; nfhy;yg; NghUf;Fr; nry;Ykd; KUfg; ngUkhd; NtyhAjj;jpw;Fg; G+i[ Ghpe;jdh;. ,jdhy; mstplKbahj rf;jpgilj;j NtyhAjk; Nfhapy;fspy; %y];jhdj;jpy; itj;Jg; G+rpf;fg;gLfpwJ.

Kw;gl;l fhyg; gFjpfspy; ,e;jpahtpypUe;J fjph;fhkk;ij jhprpf;f tUk; ahj;jPhpfh;fs; fq;if ePiuf; Flj;jpy; Kfe;Jk;> %f;fpw;Foha;fSs; Kfe;Jq; nfhz;L te;J fjpiug; ngUkhid ePuhl;LtJz;L. fjph;fhk cw;rtk; Muk;gkhdJk; Nty;fs; nfhOk;G> fz;b> fhyp> ,uj;jpdGhp> fk;gis> tJis Mfpa ,lq;fspypUe;J fjph;fhkj;jpw;Fk; vLj;Jr; nry;tJ tof;fkhapUe;jJ. fhy; eilahfNt ,t; Nty;fis Ehw;Wf;fzf;fhd mbath; GilR+o ehl;Lf; Nfhl;il efuj;jth; nfhz;L nry;th;. ,q;qdk; Nty; nfhz;L nry;Yk; mbath; $l;lk; rpw;rpy fhyq;fspy; the;jpNgjp vd;Dk; nfhs;is Nehahw; gPbf;fg;;gLtjhy; ,ilA+W Vw;gl;lJ. fhkk; nry;Nthh; mDkjpr; rPl;Lf; ngwNtz;Lnkd;w rl;lj;;;ij eilKiwg;gLj;jpaJ. fp.gp. 1818 ,y; Chthg; gFjpapy; epfo;e;j fyfKk; ,jw;nfhU fhuzkhfyhk;. nfhs;is Neha; gutpa fhyk; 1856 vdf; nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ. ,r; rl;;lk; 1922 ,y; ePf;fg;ngw;wJ.

fjph;fhkg; ngUkhidj; jhprpf;f Kbahj ehl;Lf; Nfhl;il efuj;jhh;> nfhOk;G efhpNy gf;jh;fs; KUfg; ngUkhidj; jhprpf;f rpwe;jNjhh; Vw;ghl;;;ilr; nra;jdh;. ,th;fs; nfhOk;gpw; nrl;bj; njUtpy; Gjpa fjpNurd; NfhapiyAk;> nts;stj;ij gk;gyg;gpl;b Mfpa ,U ,lq;fsppy; ,U Nfhap;fisAk; epWtpdh;. Vw;fdNt nrl;bj;njUtpypUe;J gioa fjpNurd; NfhapYf;F nts;stj;ij NfhapYk; cga fjph; fhkq;fshapd. jPH;j;Njhw;rtj;jpw;F %d;W ehl;fSf;F Kd; NtyhAjkhdJ KUfd; jpUTUTld; myq;fhpf;fg;gl;l ,ujj;jpNy Ch;tykhff; fhyp tPjp topahf vLj;Jr; nry;yg;gLk;. Nfhapy;fspy; njd;dpe;jpaf; fiyQh;fspd; fiy epfo;r;rpfSk; cge;epahrq;Fk; ,lk;ngWk;. nfhOk;G efuNk tpohf;Nfhyk; G+z;L epw;Fk;> G+uz Fk;gq;fs; > Fiy thiofs;> khiy> Njhuzq;fs; ,tw;why; tPjpfSk; > filfSk; myq;fhpf;fg;gl;Lg; ngUkhd; tuNtw;fg;gLth;. tPjpapd; ,UkUq;Fk; kf;fs; mh;r;rid Ghpe;J fjph;fhk KUfd;; fUizia Ntz;b epw;gh;. fjph;fhkQ; nry;yKbahjth;fs; jk; kdf;Fiwapid <L nra;J gf;jpapw;wpisg;gh;. xU tUlk; gk;gyg;gpl;bf;Fk; kW tUlk; nts;stj;;;ijf;Fkhf vLj;Jr; nry;yg;gLk; NtyhdJ %d;W ehl;fs; Nfhapypw;wq;fpg; gf;jNfhbf;F mUs; toq;fpj; jPH;j;j Kbtpy; te;jthNw ,Ug;gpe; jpUk;Gk;.

KUf topghl;by; ,lk;ngWk; rpy Kf;fpa mk;rq;fs;

Vj;jyq;fspYk; ,y;yhj msT rpwg;ghf ,yq;ifapNy KUfj; jyq;fspNy kNfhw;rtq;fs; epfo;tJ tof;fk;. gy;yhapuf;fzf;fhd Kufdbahh;fs; mf;fhyq;fspNy Fwpj;j Myaj;jpw;F te;J gj;jpgutruha; KUfg;ngUkhid ts;sp nja;thd rNkjuha; topgl;L ca;th;. jkpo;r; irth; kl;Lkd;wp ngsj;jh;fshd rpq;fs kf;fSk; ,t;tpohf;fhyq;fspw; fye;J topghL Mw;WtJ cz;L. kNfhw;rtj;jpw;Fhpa jyj;jpd; R+oy; vq;Fk; nrgjt> tpujhjpfspd; Gdpjk; Gyg;gl;Lf; nfhz;Nl ,Uf;Fk;. Rthkp jpUTyh tUifapy; g[idf; FOf;fs; njhlh;e;J fe;juyq;fhuk;> fe;juDg+jp> jpUKiwfis xjpr;nry;Yk;> mq;fg;gpujl;rzk;> mbaopj;J tzq;fy;> fhtb vLj;J Mly;> fh;g;G+ur; rl;b Rke;J nry;yy;. fiynfhz;L Mly;> Mfpa topghLfis mbahh;fs; epfo;j;Jth;. jPf;Fspg;Gk; fjph;fhkk; Kjypa jyq;fspy; epfo;tJz;L. nrjpy;Fj;jpf; fhtb> Ml;lf;fhtb> ghl;Lf;fhtb vd;gtw;NwhL Jhf;Ff; fhtb> Jyhf;fhtb Kjyhd gaq;fu Neh;j;jpf;fld;fis epiwNtw;Wk; td;njhz;lh;fSf;Fk; FiwtpuhJ. Myaq;fspd; R+oy;fspy; kl;Lkd;wpj; njhiy Jhuq;fspYk; jz;zPH;g;ge;jy; itj;J tUfpd;w mbahh;fis cgrhpf;Fk; rptGz;zpak;> md;djhdk;> MfpadTk; ,lk;ngWk;. kJkhkpr gl;rzk;> ,f;fhyj;jpy; gyuhy; iftplg;gl;L tpujk; mDl;bf;fg;gLtJk; Fwpg;gplj;jf;fNj. KUfh Kufh vd;w Nfh\k; ,iltplhJ Mya tPjpfspNy xypg;gJ gj;jpf;fdptpidA+l;Lk; epfo;r;rpahFk;.

KUfDf;Fhpa fhh;j;jpif el;rj;jpuq;fspd; NghJk; rpwg;ghff; fhh;j;jpif khjj;Jf; fhh;j;jpif el;rj;jpuj;jpd; NghJk;> khtpsf;fpl;L topghL epfo;j;Jth;. fe;jr\;b MW jpdq;fspYk; rq;fw;gk; nra;Jnfhz;L Kufdhyaq;fspNyNa jq;fpapUe;J cgthrk; Nkw;nfhz;L jkJ Md;khitg; Gdpjk; nra;NthUk;> ,l;lG+h;j;jpia vjph;Nehf;FgtUk; ,yq;ifapNy vz;zpyh;. FypAftujdhfpa Kufidna ruzhfjpaile;J eye;jPq;fpy; mtid kwthjpUf;Fk; irtkf;fNs ,e; ehl;by; ngUk;ghd;ikah; vd;W $wpd; mJ kpifad;W.

fhtb tpoh

tpahghu epkpj;jkhfj; njd;dpe;jpahtpypUe;J ,yq;iff;F te;j th;j;jfh;fs;> rhk;khq;Nfhl;by; fjph;NtyhAj Rthkp Myaj;;ij mikj;Js;sdh;. gz;il ehl;fspy; ,r;;irtj; jkpo;kf;fSk;> fjph;fhkj;jpw;Ff; nfhOk;gpypUe;J fhtb vLj;Jr; nry;tJ tof;fk;. gpd;dh; fjph;fhk ahj;jpiu fbdkhdjhf mikaNt mf;fhtbia ,th;fs; nts;stj;ijapYs;s rk;khq;Nfhl;L khzpf;f tpehafh; NfhapYf;F vLj;Jr; nry;thuhapdh;. Mb khjj;jpy; mgpNlfj; jputpaq;fSld; ,ujj;jpNy fhtb gtdp te;J ,U ehl;fs; jq;fpapUe;J Mapuf;fzf;fhd mbath;fl;Fj; jhprdk; mUsppf; fjph;fhkj;jpy; jPH;j;jk; Kbe;jgpd; te;jthNw rk;khq;Nfhl;bYs;s Myaj;jpw;F kPSk;> Nty;toh Nghd;Nw ,t;tpohTk; kpff; Nfhyhfykhff; nfhz;lhlg;gLfpd;wJ. fiy epfo;r;rpfs;> rkag; gpurq;fq;fs; vd;gdTk; ,e; ehl;fspy; ,f; Nfhapy;fspy; ,lk;ngWk;.

jkpo; ehl;by; fhtb Ml;lk;

fe;jf; flTis topgLk; epfo;r;rpahf jkpo; ehl;by; fhtbahl;lk; kpfTk; rpwg;ghf eilngw;W tUfpd;wik Fwpg;glw;ghyjhFk;. jkpo; ehl;bYs;s KUfd; Myaq;fspy; eilngWk; jpUtpohf;fs; fhtb tpoh vdf;$wj;jf;f rpwg;Giladthf tpsq;Ffpd;wd. gq;Fdp cj;jug; ngUtpohtd;W Mapuf;fzf;fhd gf;jh;fs; mWEhw;Wj;njhz;Ehw;now gbfs; Vwp jPH;j;jf; fhtbfSk;> Vida fhtbfSk; nfhz;L godpj;jpUj;jy KUfDf;F fhtb %yk; fhzpf;if nrYj;JtJ mw;Gjkhd topghlhf ,Uf;Fk;. njd;idkl;ilapy; ,sePh;f; Fiyfis fl;bj;JHf;fpf; nfhz;L vLf;Fk; ,sePh;f;fhtbfis godpj;jpUj;jyj;jyj;jpy; gq;Fdp cj;juj;jpUehspy; ghh;f;fKbAk;. NkYk; jpUg;guq;Fd;wk;> jpUj;jzpif> jpUr;nre;Jhh; Kjypa KUfd; Myaq;fspYk; fhtb topghl;Lkiw rpwg;ghf epfo;j;jg;gLfpd;wJ.

Rkj;jpuhtpy; fhtbahl;lk;.

Rkj;jpuhtpy; cs;s Nklhdpy; ,e;J rka topghl;bw;Fhpa gy Nfhapy;fs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. mtw;Ws; jz;lhAjghzp NfhapYk; xd;whFk;. ,f; Nfhapypy; Mz;LNjhWk; %d;W ehl;fs; ijg;G+rj;jpUtpoh kpfTk; rpwg;ghf eilngWfpd;wJ. ,t;tpohf;fhyq;fspy; Ehw;Wf;fzf;fhd fhtbfs; KUfDf;Fr; nrYj;jg;gLfpd;wd. mtw;Ws; ghy;fhtbAk;> rh;f;fiuf; fhtbAk; mjpfkhff; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.

njd;dhtphpf;fhtpy; fhtbahl;lk;

njd;dhgphpf;fhtpy; cs;s fpNshh;\l; vd;w ,lj;jpy; trpf;Fk; jkpoh;fs; rptRg;gpukzpak; vd;w ngahpy; fe;jDf;F Xh; Myak; mikj;Js;sdh;. mq;F ijg;G+rj;jpdj;jd;Wk; gq;Fdp cj;juj;jd;Wk; gf;jh;fs; ,d;W fhtb vLj;J fe;jid topgl;L tUfpd;wdh;.

kNyrpahtpy; fhtb Ml;lk;

KUf tzf;fk; rpwg;Gw;W tpsq;Fk; kNyrpahtpy; fhtbahl;lk; rpwg;Gld; tpsq;Ffpd;wJ. kNyrpahtpy; cs;s gj;Jkiy KUfd; Nfhapy;> rpfhkl;rpq;fhutbNtyh; Myak;> fq;ifg; gl;lhzp = Rg;gpukzpah; Myak;> N[h$h;ghU = jz;lhAjghzp Myak;> fh[hq;Rg;gpukzpaRthkp Nfhtpy;> nfh;ypq;Rg;gpukzpah; Myak;> gpdhq;F jz;zPH;kiy = ghyjz;lhAjghzp Myak;> <g;Ngh fy;Ykiy KUfd; Myak;> ghfq;ifr; Nrh;e;j uT+g; KUfd; Myak; Nghd;w KUfd; Myaq;fspy; ijg;G+r jpdj;jd;W fhtbnaLj;J fe;jf;flTis topgl;L tUfpd;wdh;. gpdhq;F jz;zPh; kiy =ghyjz;lhAjghzp Myaj;jpy; eilngWk; ijg;G+r tpohtpy; kyha;f;fhuh;fSk; rPdh;fSk; $l fhtbnaLj;Jf; fe;jid topgl;L tUfpd;wdh;. kNyrpahtpy; cs;s gj;Jkiy KUfd; Nfhtpy; ijg;G+r tpohtpw;Fk; fhtb topghl;bw;Fk; ngah; ngw;W tpsq;Ffpd;wJ. jkpo; ehl;bd; godpkiy vg;gbNah mNj Nghy kNyrpahtpy; gj;Jkiy tpsq;Ffpd;wJ. gy yl;rf;fzf;fhd kf;fs; fye;J nfhs;Sk; ijg;G+r tpohtd;W gj;Jkiyapy; cs;s ,Uehw;wp vOgj;jpuz;L gbfis Vwpr;nrd;W kiy cr;rpapy; cs;s Fifapy; vOe;jUsp ,Uf;Fk; KUfg; ngUkhDf;F gf;jh;fs; fhtb vLj;Jf; fhzpf;if nrYj;Jfpd;wdh;. ghw;fhtb> gof;fhtb> rh;f;fiuf;fhtb> ,sePh;f;fhtb> gQ;rhkph;jf; fhtb> vdg; gy fhtbfis vLj;Jg; gf;jh;fs; fe;jd; Gfo;ghb jj;jk; Neh;j;jpf; fld;fisr; nrYj;Jfpd;wdh;. Kufdplk; jhd; nfhz;Ls;s gf;jpia vLj;Jf; fhl;Ltjw;fhf rptfhp> rf;jpfhp vd;w ,uz;L Fd;Wfisj; jd;Njhspy; xU jz;lj;jpd; cjtpahy; ,Lk;gd;Jhf;fpaNj ijg;G+rj;jpd; tuyhW vd;W ,f; Nfhapypy; fUjg;gLtjd; fhuzkhfNt ijg;G+rj;jd;W ,Lk;gd; Jhf;fpa gpukjz;lk; my;yJ fhtbia kf;fs; Jhf;fpr; nrd;W Kufid topgl;LtUfpd;wdh;.

rpq;fg;G+hpy; fhtbahl;lk;

rpq;fg;G+hpy; cs;s jz;lhAghzp Myaj;jpy; ijg;G+rj;jpUehSk;> fhh;j;jpifj; jpUehSk;> gq;Fdp cj;juKk; Nfhyhfykhff; nfhz;lhlg;gLfpd;wd. ijg;G+rj;jpdj;jd;W Rkhh; Mapuf;fzf;fhd gf;jh;fs; fhtbfs; vLj;J fe;jid te;jid nra;tJ fz;nfhs;shf; fhl;rpahf ,Uf;Fk;.

gz;ilj;jkpoh;fs; KUf topghl;by; rpwe;J tpsq;fpdhh;fs;. KUfidf; fe;jd; vd;w ngahpy; topgLk; tof;fk; Njthufhyk; Kjyhf ,Ue;J tUfpd;wJ. fe;jid te;jid nra;Ak; topghl;L KiwfSs; fhtbahl;lk; jdpj;Jtk; ngw;W tpsq;Ffpd;wJ. gz;ilj; jkpohpd; Ntyd; ntwpahl;lj;Jld; fe;jdpd; fhtbahl;lj;ij ,izj;J Nehf;f Kbfpd;wJ. fe;jDf;Ff; fhzpf;ifg; nghUl;fs; nfhz;L nrd;w fhTjbNa fhtb vdg; ngah; ngw;wnjd;w mwpQh; fUj;J Vw;Gilj;jhfTs;sJ. ,Lk;gd; Jhf;fpa rptfphp rf;jpfphp vd;w ,uz;L kiyfs; gw;wpf; $wg;gLk; nja;tPff; fijabahfNt fe;jd; topghl;by; fhtbahl;lk; ,d;Wk; rpwg;Gg; ngw;W tpsq;Ffpd;wJ. fhtb topghl;L KiwahdJ jdpkdpj topghl;L Kiwahf kl;Lkd;wp FLk;g topghl;L KiwahfTk; tpsq;Ffpd;wJ. gf;jh;fs; jj;jk; Neh;j;jpf;fld;fSf;F Vw;wtpjj;jpy; ntt;NtW ngah;fspy; fhtbfs; vL;j;f; fe;jid te;jid nra;J tUfpd;wdh;. fhtbapy; fhzpf;ifahff; nfhz;L nry;yg;gLk; ghy;> japh;> Njd;> rf;fiu> gd;dPh;> ,sePh;> Kjyhd nghUl;fs; Mz;ltdpd; mgpN\fj;jpw;Fg; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd. Jhf;Ff;fhtb> gwitf;fhtb Nghd;w fhtbahl;lq;fs; fbdkhd flTs; topghl;L Kiwahff; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. mstw;w md;G ed;wpAzh;T Nghd;wdtw;iw ntspg;gLj;Jk; topghl;L KiwahfNt fhtbahl;lk; epfo;j;jg;gLfpd;wJ. Md;kPf mDgtq;fSk; xNu mDgtj;jpidNa czh;j;jpepw;fpd;wd vd;gjidf; fhtb topghl;L Kiwfs; ed;F tpsf;fp epw;fpd;wd. mf;FgQ;rh; vd;w rPd kUj;Jt rpfpr;ir Kiwapidf; fbdkhd fhtbfs; epidT+l;b epw;fpd;wd. fhtbia vj;jid fiyAzh;NthL myq;fhpj;jpUg;gpDk; fhtbapy; fhzg;gLk; NtYk;> kapw;gPypifAk; fe;jid epidTgLj;JtjhfNt tpsq;Ffpd;wd.

KbTiu

vkJ rka tho;f;if KiwapNy kdpj tho;f;if KOtJk; ,iwtopghl;NlhL gpd;dpg; gpize;J fhzg;gLfpwJ. Foe;ijAk;> nja;tKk; nfhz;lhLk; ,lj;jpNy vd;w Md;Nwhh; thf;fpw;F ,zq;f Foe;ij cs;s ,lj;jpNyjhd; vg;NghJk; nfhz;lhl;lk; ,Uf;Fk;. nfhz;lhl;lk; cs;s ,lj;jpNyjhd; Foe;ij kfpo;r;rpahf ,Uf;Fk; ,Nj Nghyjhd; nja;t re;epjpAk; kfpo;r;rpahf ,Uf;Fk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.

r%jhaj;jpy; eilngWk; topghLfSk;> rlq;FfSk; rk;gpujhaq;fNshL fye;jjhfNt mikfpd;wd. mitahTk; nfhz;lhl;lq;fshfNth my;yJ tpohf;fshfNth mD\;bf;fg;gLfpd;wd. tpujkpUj;jy; cliy tUj;jp Neh;j;jpf;fld; ,Uj;jy; Fwpg;ghf fhtbahl;lk; jPkpjpj;jy;> myfpLjy;> mq;fg;gpuj;ir Nghd;wit $l kfpo;r;rp nghq;Fk; kq;fs epfo;r;rpfshfNt miktJ ekJ irt rkaj;jpd; jdpg;ngUQ; rpwg;ghFk;.

,t;Tyfpy; tho;e;jpUf;fpd;w fhyj;jpy; ,fgu ed;ikfUjp Myaq;fspYk;> tPl;bYk; mD\;bf;Fk; rlq;Ffs; gy ,it tpujq;fshfTk;> tpohf;fshfTk; gythW mikfpd;wd. Myaq;fspy; mD\;bf;fg;gLk; tpehaf\;b tpujk; (ngUq;fij) fe;jr\;b tpujk;> Nfjhunfshp tpujk;> rptuhj;jphp tpujk; KjypadTk; tPl;bNy G+i[ topghLfSld; mD\;bf;fg;gLk; tuyf;\;kp tpujk;> etuhj;jphp tpujk; fpU\;z[ae;jp tpehafh; rJh;j;jp KjypadTk; ,j;jifaNt.

Myaq;fspy; eilngWfpd;w cw;rtq;fs; ,d;ndhUtif ,tw;iwtpl GjtUlg;gpwg;G> ijg;nghq;fy;> jPghtsp> Mbg;gpwg;G Kjypad kw;nwhU tif.

,j;jifa tpohf;fSk;> tpujq;fSk; gz;biffSk; ekJ tho;f;ifapNy ,lk;ngWjy; ,iw ek;gpf;if gykile;J ey;ynjhU Md;kPf tho;it ehk; mikj;Jf; nfhs;s toptFf;fpd;wd. mJkl;Lky;yhkw; r%jha xUikg;ghLk; cwtpdh; ez;gh;fspilNa el;GwTk; fyhr;rhu hPjpahf gz;ghl;L tsKk; NkNyhq;fTk; tpohf;fSk; tpujq;fSk; cjTfpd;wd.

Shanthi Navukkarasan

rhe;jp ehTf;furd; B.A. (Hons.), SLAS I
gzpg;ghsh;
,e;J rka fyhrhu mYty;fs; jpizf;fsk;
,-nkapy;: hindudir@sltnet.lk


"mLj;j khehL ,yq;ifapy; elf;f Ntz;Lk;."
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