The Hexagram, Symbol of God Murukan
Its Tantric, Mantric, Astronomical and Religious potent in Art, Myth, Ritual and Architecture, and its parallel in the Indus Sign denoting Space and Time
The six pointed hexagram stands for the six faced God Murukan and it expresses the structure of the ritual space in geometrical terms and regulates the yearly
chronometry inherent in temple festivals.
The hexagram with the mantram "om saravanabava" inscribed in it serves as a yantram of the deity Murukan and when the mantram is recited, the yantram as a finite hologram of the infinite embodies the primordial sacrifice of prajapati who re-enacts the cosmic order to bring harmony into the world.
The God Murukan of six faces with twelve eyes, twelve
arms regulates the sacred architecture with spiritual art and mythic imagery.
The cock, which decorates the ceremonial flag of the deity Murukan also refers
to the sun. The cock signals the sunrise with its "Kozhi Koovuthal"
which refers to an auspicious beginning in the daily religious life of the
Tamils of southern India.
Indus Sign No:
373 Indus Sign No: 391 Indus Sign No: 286
Indus Sign No:
403 Indus Sign No: 30 Symbol of God Murukan
Elliptical Time Cycle
Indus Sign No: 373
Time is cyclical, circular for Indians and Chinese and it
is repetitive and measures days, months, seasons and years. The circular
movement of time guarantees perpetual return and time as a fixed measure is
derived from the rotations of the sky above and the motions of the heavenly
bodies are linked to the symbolism of the circle around the world below. As per
the Greeks, time moves in a circle and expresses the cosmic order and imitates
the activities of heavenly bodies that measure it. (ADRIAN SNODGRASS, 1994)
The Indus valley deities are shown wearing bangles often
and Ahmuvan (N.S. Valluvan, 2004), the Indus valley prototype of Murukan, wears
several bangles in his arms perhaps denoting the time cycles. Murukan who is
born of fire and sacrifice has solar features and as a microcosm of the
universe, presides over the stars and the ordering of time of the rythymical
cosmos in elliptical circles. 1.2
is the beginning, essence and meaning of creation and inherits the
characteristics of the supreme God Siva and becomes a supreme God himself.
Murukan can be identified with the proto-siva of the Indus valley and can be
proto-brahma too and is the creator of the Hindu Trimurti (Brahma-Vishnu-Siva)
or the Prajapati of Brahmanism. The Indus valley people worshiped siva in his
aniconic form, the linga which has four visible faces oriented in four
directions to the movement of the sun, which is time itself. And the three eyes
of siva represent the present, past and the future and their identification
with sun, moon and fire refers to time. 1.3
Murukan who emerges as a Lord of space and time is the
kalapurusha, vastupurusha and hiranayagarbha, the microcosm of the universe and
thus God Murukan is cosmologically the stars, sun, moon, planets, space and
time. The linga also represents the four yugas (The World Ages); the Kreta,
Treta, Duapara, and Kali yugas. These yugas go after one upon the other in
every "Kalpa" (The Aeon). 1.4
Murukan as prajapati is both space and time in their
fullness comprising the spatial directions and the year, which is time
itself. Or prajapati may be equated with the sum of the parts of the year: the
six seasons, the twelve months, the three hundred and sixty days and nights of
the ritual calendar as Murukan's six faces represent the six seasons, the
twelve arms representing the twelve months, the cock being the harbinger of the
rising sun and the peacock whose feathers exhibit the fantastic mixture of all
colours that represent the beautiful glory of the eternal sun. The gate keeper
deities of the God Murukan in his shrine are AGNI (sun) and RUDRA (siva), so
Murukan as an embodiment of the sun and time is glorified as an all powerful
God of all times from Ahmuvan of the Indus valley to Skanda Murukan of India.
Murukan is the possessor of " VEL" (The spear of Valour,
Victory and Wisdom) and rides around the world in the peacock with a snake
entwined in its claws symbolizing kundalini energy who liberates all the
faithful from worldly bondages and grants several boons to his worshippers. He
is addressed fondly as "PALANIANDAVAR" (The God of Palani Hill), the sacred
hill shrine of Murukan in Tamilnadu of southern India. The adept who follow him
obtain "MUKTHI" (The enlightenment) and merge into "VETAVEZHI" (The eternity).
He is worshiped as a "SIDDHAR" (The enlightened one) and people who believe in
them may achieve various mystical powers. The devotee who chants "om
saravanabava" receives the protection of God Murukan. The devotional path of Murukan
worship is termed as "KAUMARAM" in Hinduism and he is the source of eternal
truth, eternal knowledge and eternal bliss. 1.6
The Spear of Valour, Victory and Wisdom
Elliptical Time Cycle Divided Into Six Units
Indus Sign No: 391
The elliptical time cycle divided into six units,
parallels the six armed cosmic cross of the ancients that decide the four
cardinal directions and the four directions of the solstices. The
northeast represents the summer solstice sunrise and the northwest refers
to the summer solstice sunset. The southeast represents winter solstice
sunrise and southwest refers to the winter solstice sunset. 2.1
This can be compared with the six-spoked wheel of the
Indian art symbolism which is the Kala Chakram (Time Wheel) and the six
divisions represent the six principle seasons. The wheel is the wheel of the
sun for the Brahmins of India. The wheel of twelve spokes represent the months
and the zodiac; the wheel of thirty spokes stand for the lunar mansions; the
wheel of 360 spokes are the days of the solar year and the wheel is the
everlasting sequence of the year in its temporal meaning. Its endless rotation
of cycles involves an infinite motion of renewal. 2.2
he wheel spokes denote the directions of space and the
divisions of the time cycle. Both have an origin from a point without any
dimension and the eastern and western axes represent the horizon sunrise, nadir
sunset respectively. The east-west course defines the axis on which sun
completes the annual cycle. 2.3
The amalaka, the coping-stone that crowns the temples of
Nagara (The Northern type) is in a wheel shape, pierced at the center and has a
series of rib like spokes. The circular amalaka represents the celestial realm
and the sacred amalaka tree is compared to the cosmic tree which represents the
world axis in Hindu myths. 2.4
he six armed cosmic cross has been expressed as the
pilgrimage centers of God Murukan in Tamilnadu of southern India. These six centers are, Palani; Thiruccentur; Thiruttani; Thirupparankuntram; Swamimalai;
Palamuturcholai and they share in common the heritage of Murukan worship as per
the ritual calendar in relation to Tamil Saivism. 2.5
Elliptical Time Cycle Divided Into Six Units Inscribed Within a Lozsenge Shape
Symbolizes The Space and Time
Indus Sign No: 286
This Indus sign exhibits a perfect correlation between
the terrestrial square of the earth in a lozsenge shape and the
celestial circle of the heaven in an elliptical shape symbolizing space
and time. The square is marked with the four directions; North, South, East,
West at the corners. And for the ancients, the roads that connect the east,
west and north, south have ceremonial connotations. The priest faces the east
and reads the oracles. 3.1
The crossing of the six arms in the circle, decide the
epicenter of space and time. The circle also marks the annual round of ritual
dances that reflect the cycle of seasons and the movement of the stars. The
Milky Way oscillates between the SW-NE and SE-NW axes at twelve-hour intervals
and the cross of this oscillation decides the zenith at the center. This point
should have been crucial for the ancient astronomers to study the movement of
the constellations in ancient times. 3.2
The Six Pointed Hexagram: The Symbol of God Murukan
symbolization of the six-pointed hexagram is a zodiacal representation with the
astronomical intent (K.V.Ramakrishna Rao, 2002). The concept of the hexagon is
linked to a circle and the circle is a polygon with infinite sides.
Geometrically the six faces of Murukan parallels the hexagon and the geometry
is related to arithmetic and numbers. All these concepts are related to the
theory of squaring a circle and circling the square and may compose many
mathematical functions and operations. The number six expresses the fullness of
the cosmos. The six directions; North, South, East, West, up, and down are
considered to be surrounded by the God's six faces. 4.1
the festivals that are celebrated for the God Murukan fall on full moon or new
moon coinciding with the respective stars. This way the common people are made
aware to keep in mind the importance of nakshatras, weekdays, fortnight, month,
six months, year etc. in a systematic way by observing the festivities for
Murukan from ancient times. The astronomical interpretation of this deity has a
powerful association with Indian Tantras, Yantras, Mantras and the five
elements (Ether, Wind, Fire, Water, Earth) and God Murukan permeates the sixth,
the whole thus the six faces of the deity are represented. 4.2
mantram "om saravanabava" is geometrically expressed in the hexagonal structure
and is very important in the sacred temple rituals prepared for Murukan. The
hexagram symbolizes the six pilgrimage centers of Murukan and the purpose of
the pilgrimages to these temples work at several levels (Fred W. Clothey, 1983).
- The Egoscape (The
inward pilgrimage of an individual)
- The Socioscape
(The communal association & transformation of an individual)
- The Ecoscape (The
hills, the terrains, the rivers, the routes and the geographical
association of the pilgrimage)
Metascape (The metaphysical realization of an individual)
These constituents are very important factors involving
an individual's transformation to realize his or her identity with the all
powerful deity during or after the pilgrimages that he or she undertakes to
Murukan's six principal centers of worship that is symbolized by the six
pointed hexagram and finds it's parallel with the Indus sign denoting space and
The Decipherment of Indus Signs
1. Sign No: 342, The Sky, read as
2. Sign No: 8, The Lord of space and
time, read as "MU".
3. Sign No: 48, The Draco
constellation, read as "AH".
4. Sign No: 127, The Ursa Major
(Refer for 1-4: http://murugan.org/research/valluvan.htm)
5. Sign No: 373, The elliptical time
6. Sign No: 391, The elliptical time
cycle divided into six units.
7. Sign No: 286, The elliptical time
cycle divided into six units inscribed within a Lozsenge shape that
symbolizes the earth. This arrangement denotes the space and
8. Sign No: 30, The deity holding a
lozsenge shape representing the earth.
9. Sign No: 42, The deity with the
elliptical time cycle divided into six units attached to his leg.
10. Sign No: 403, The two
intersecting elliptical time cycles.
The Decipherment of Indus Sign Sequences
1. Sign Sequence No: 4632 00, The
lord of space and time of the sky, read as "MUVAN"
2. Sign Sequence No: 1487 00, The
Draco constellation of the sky, read as "AHVAN"
3. Sign Sequence No: 5266 00, The
elliptical time cycle of the sky.
4. Sign Sequence No: 7075 00, Two
parallel elliptical time cycles.
5. Sign Sequence No: 1490 00, Two parallel elliptical
time cycles each divided into six units of the sky.
6. Sign Sequence No: 5265 00, The Draco constellation
with two elliptical time cycles.
7. Sign Sequence No: 4905 00, The lord of space and time
with two elliptical time cycles.
10. Sign Sequence No: 4307 00, The
Constellation Draco that is established by the lord of space and time of the
sky, read as "AHMUVAN".
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The author N.S. Valluvan of Chennai, India, may be contacted by e-mail at: firstname.lastname@example.org